In 2001, the United States Congress signed the No Child Left Behind Act, which promotes the idea of fair or equal educational opportunities for all public school students. The Act, which was proposed and also signed by President George W. Bush, was a bipartisan act. This means that both Democratic and Republican members of Congress agreed upon and supported the legislation. The Act requires states to have students assessed at various grade levels in order to receive federal funding. These assessments are the main way in which the government can see how well certain public schools are doing, and by how much certain public schools need to improve. Rather than setting a national standard, the Act requires each state to set its own standard to assess the performance of schools. Even though different states have different cutoff points and numbers to assess students, the Act seeks to improve education standards for the entire nation. It is a way to make sure that students who are not performing as well as their classmates get the help and attention they need to do so.